or painful menstruation, is pain in the lower abdomen and lower back
which appears just prior to or during menstruation and has repeated
for at least three consecutive menstrual cycles.
In severe cases,
nausea, vomiting, sweating, diarrhea, loss of or poor appetite, headache
and backache, which interfere with daily activities may also be present.
is generally classified into two types: primary dysmenorrhea, which
begins shortly after menarche and is not associated with a disease
of the organs, and secondary dysmenorrhea which is always related to
just prior to or during menstruation is not considered dysmenorrhea.
Chinese Medicine, dysmenorrhea is mainly due to the impeded flow of
qi and blood. For example, qi and blood deficiency or qi stagnancy
aggravated by blood statis may cause the retardation of the menstrual
flow and result in dysmenorrhea.